Day 2 :
Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
WK Tang was appointed to professor in the Department of Psychiatry, the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2011. His main research areas are Addictions and Neuropsychiatry in Stroke. Professor Tang has published over 100 papers in renowned journals, and has also contributed to the peer review of 40 journals. He has secured over 20 major competitive research grants. He has served the editorial boards of five scientific journals. He was also a recipient of the Young Researcher Award in 2007, awarded by the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Background and objectives:
The objectives of this study were to ascertain the pattern of grey and white matter volume reduction and regional metabolic and activation abnormalities in chronic ketamine users, and to evaluate the correlations between these brain abnormalities and cognitive impairments in chronic ketamine users in Hong Kong.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Counselling Centre for Psychotropic Substance Abusers in Hong Kong.
One hundred and thirty-six participants were recruited from October 2011 to April 2014. The participants were divided into two groups: ketamine users (79) and healthy controls (57).
Main outcome measures:
Psychiatric assessments included screening with self-rating questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. All of the participants completed a detailed cognitive battery that covered general intelligence, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, motor speed and language. All of the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.
Many of the participants in the ketamine group also frequently used cocaine and cannabis. Among the ketamine users, 12.6% were diagnosed with a mood disorder and 8.9% with an anxiety disorder. The participants in the ketamine group had worse performance than the healthy controls on tests of general intelligence, verbal, visual and working memory and executive functioning.
In terms of grey matter volumes, the right orbitofrontal cortex, right medial prefrontal cortex, left and right hippocampus and possibly the left orbitofrontal cortex were smaller in the ketamine group. In contrast, the volumes of the left basal ganglia, left putamen and possibly the left caudate were higher in the ketamine group. In terms of white matter volumes, the ketamine group had a lower periventricular white matter volume in the right hemisphere. The grey matter volumes of the left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right medial prefrontal cortex, left basal ganglia and left putamen, and right periventricular white matter volume were negatively correlated with the severity of ketamine dependence. The hippocampal volumes were correlated with performance on the arithmetic, information and digit span tests. The periventricular white matter volume also correlated with the information score.
A functional connectivity examination of the default mode network revealed significantly decreased connectivity in the medial part of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral gyrus rectus, left superior temporal pole, left inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral angular gyrus and bilateral cerebellum crus II in the ketamine group. This group also displayed increased connectivity in the bilateral precuneus and right inferior occipital gyrus.
The results provide imaging evidence of brain damage in chronic ketamine users. Chronic ketamine use was associated with reduced grey and white matter volumes in certain regions of the brain. Chronic ketamine use was also associated with altered functional connectivity with the default mode network. Abnormal brain structures and altered functional organisation of the brain network may underlie the hypersensitivity towards drug related cues but weakened cognitive control in those with ketamine addiction. Longitudinal or prospective studies would help to strengthen the evidence on the reversibility of the structural and functional brain damage caused by ketamine.
Professor, The University of Western Australia, Australia
Prof. Hulse is based at the School of Psychiatry QE11 Medical Centre University of Western Australia. His research career has been directed at developing evidence based information which will enhance clinical practice, and has in the last several years had a particular focus on assessing the safety and efficacy of sustained release naltrexone as a management tool for substance dependence. He has arguably published more than anyone else globally on sustained release naltrexone for the management of heroin dependence, much of this on the Australian naltrexone implant.
Three oral pharmacotherapies (acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone) are commonly used for the management of alcohol abuse or dependence. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which primarily, but not exclusively, targets the μ-opioid receptor. Naltrexone likely exerts its actions by blockade of the high concentration of μ-opioid receptors located in areas of the brain that have been implicated in the reward pathway associated with alcohol. Despite being a relatively effective and safe treatment1, the clinical management of alcohol abuse/dependence by oral naltrexone can be compromised due to the patient’s noncompliance with daily use of this medication2, 3. Over the past decade an increasing body of research has suggested that the use of sustained release depot naltrexone preparations can overcome this issue and deliver improved clinical outcomes4. However, at the same time, research findings from diverse areas of pharmacogenetics, neurobiology and behavioural psychology have also been converging to identify variables including genetic markers, patient psychosocial characteristics and drug use history differences that play a major role in mediating the response of alcohol abuse/dependent persons to treatment by naltrexone4,5. The establishment of clinical procedures to maximise use of oral formula, and characterization of clinical markers to identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from naltrexone will ultimately provide significant benefit to both patients and clinicians by optimizing treatment outcome.
- Addiction | Addictive Disorders | Alcoholism | Addiction Medicine | Addiction Nursing | Drug Addiction | Marijuana and Opioid Addiction | Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse | Depression & Anxiety Disorders | Eating Disorders | Behavioral Addiction | Gambling Addiction | Mental Health and Substance Abuse | Liver Cirrhosis | Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation | Group Therapies | Rehabilitation Therapies
University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Sandi James is a Psychologist registered in Australia and currently working at University Malaysia Sabah within the Community and Family Medicine Department. Sandi has a particular interest in alcohol and addiction treatment, particularly in harm reduction approaches and community level programs and interventions. She is involved in numerous research and community development projects in Sabah and is on the committee of the newly established Association for the Prevention of Alcohol Misuse (APAM). Sandi is also embarking on research in 2017 to investigate the prevalence and treatment gap for mental health disorders in the polyclinic setting in Kota Kinabalu.
Statement of the problem: Alcohol related harm is considered significant in many areas in Sabah. This project aimed to provide community members with information and approaches to addressing this problem in their own area. This paper shows a unique approach to health promotion and community engagement in rural communities. Method: This project used action research methodology. A workshop for alcohol misuse was held in a rural village. At the start of the workshop four groups were formed and focus group discussions were held using the diamond dialogue technique. Responses were analysed for themes, using grounded theory methods (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The position on the diamond shape was analysed by overlaying an 11 point grid, with 10 corresponding to the highest level of happiness and 0 corresponding to the lowest level of happiness. Results/ findings: The diamond dialogue was originally created as a research tool to measure the effectiveness of community level interventions on wellbeing (Scopaz, Eckermann, & Clarke, 2012). This tool was initially used as a way of evaluating our alcohol intervention. While being used in this way it was noted that the tool itself provided an avenue for change. It has not previously been used specifically as an intervention in itself. The respondents appeared to understand the exercise well. Five main themes were found: Family and relationships, Security, Health, Expanding horizons, Religion. Alcohol was a topic that pervaded all of these themes, with positive and negative effects. Results suggest that using the diamond dialogue created a collective motivation to change. Exploring community ambivalence towards alcohol, acceptance of both the positive and negative effects and validation of the community’s views provided a platform for engagement. This lead to “change talk” and ownership of possible solutions. Conclusion/ Significance: This research suggests the diamond dialogue tool is useful both as an explorative tool and a stand-alone community level intervention tool. Further research is underway to further explore this conclusion and develop the tool for wider use in communities.
UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania
Trifu Simona is a MD psychiatrist, as. Professor - Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Bucharest; Lecturer at Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila" Bucharest; Doctoral Degree in Psychology; Doctoral Degree in Medicine; Full member International Psychoanalytical Association; Master Degree in Public Health management. She published 10 author books and she is the author of many articles presented in several international scientific worldwide conferences.
Research subject choice reasoning: The present case brings into discussion the alcohol pathology, occurred over a paranoid type personality structure, in which jealousy dimension is major.
Objectives: The patient reaches the guard room of psychiatry hospital for death threats addressed to his own children, including ritualic scenes for anticipation scenes, all these being carried out on the changed background of consciousness (the development of a crepuscular state with the preservation of motor automatisms and relative post-critical amnesia).
Hypothesis: Patient’s speech suggests in après coupe a crepuscular state with the narrowing of consciousness field and preservation of motor automatisms, potentiated by the increased alcohol consumption at the respective moment. The same idea is supported by the partial post-critical amnesia and by patient’s inability to order chronologically the events of that period. At the same time, at the assessment moment, he dissimulates the seriousness of acts and has confabulatory explicative constructions.
Materials and methods: EEG, MRI, psychological assessment (psychometric examination - clinical scales: Hamilton anxiety scales and Hamilton depression scale), projective examination - Lusher color test and Szondi test - destiny analysis), clinical interview, observation, psychiatric treatment.
Results: The patient is slightly inner-tensioned, with attitude of embarrassment and willing to get out of this situation, confused by the acts committed and by their consequences, trying to have a “picture” attitude, offering expected answers and potentially valid counter-arguments for each sequence of behavioral acts. He offers tangential information related to the acts committed.
Conclusions: A difficult recalling is acknowledged, entangling the chronology of events committed, thing suggesting the possibility of a crepuscular state, potentiated by the alcohol consumption at the critical moment of the action, when he threatened his children with death.
Florida Atlantic University, USA
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Laura is a young Colombian neuroscientist who attended medical school at a prestigious Colombian university, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and further on continued her studies as a Neuroscientist at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, USA. Laura is starting her career as a cognitive Neuroscience researcher, pursuing her passion by investigating on her area of interest; Sociopathy and Psychopathy. Currently she works as at a research laboratory, Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Ciencias y Procesos Humanos (LINICPH), which is part of the Social Science Faculty at a respected university, Universidad Externado de Colombia, where she forms part of the Social Neuroscience research group. She is an active member of COLNE organization (Colombian school of Neuroscience). Additionally, she is developing a study on The relationship between Mirror Neurons and Sociopathy and the underlying cerebral changes by analysis of FMRI with Dr. Heath King from Yale University.
Statement of the problem: Asperger’s Syndrome is a developmental disorder known as part of the Highly Functional Autism (HFA) spectrum, affecting approximately 0.5% of the population. Because of their functional nature and average or higher than average intelligence combined with their lack of social skills, these individuals report high levels of physiological stress in everyday activities and regular interactions that intervene negatively not only on their mental health but exacerbating their limitations. Coping mechanisms of their underlying condition and its extensive implications have been a preoccupying issue to the scholars due to their obsessive traits and repetitive behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess substance abuse in individuals in the Highly Functional Autism spectrum, specially individuals with an Asperger’s Syndrome diagnosis. A secondary objective was to compare the risk of substance abuse in Asperger’s individuals with control subjects with no diagnosis within the Autism Spectrum, taking into consideration individual personality traits. Orientation: In an extensive metaanalysis of recent literature, 15+ articles concerning substance abuse and/or Asperger’s Syndrome where reviewed and analyzed in addition to work field done at the Psychiatric Ward of the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá Colombia. Findings: This study showed that; adults diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome have a higher risk of substance abuse compared to the normal population due to the preexisting traits of their autistic condition. Their lack of social skills, motor clumsiness, anticipated nervousness, anxiety, among others, cause these individuals to be more susceptible to not only search for external aid to cope with their mental difficulties, but they are more likely to develop addictive disorders due to their obsessive and compulsive traits. Conclusion & Significance: Asperger’s individuals seek an external social aid in the mental disinhibition that substance consumption generates, in order to compensate their lack of social skills. Due to their higher obsessive traits and repetitive behavior, Asperger’s individuals are prone to develop an addictive disorder when substance consumption. This has a high negative implication on their underlying condition, exacerbating their mental, psychological and social limitations.
Dr. Seyed Amir Jazaeri was born in Iran. He finished M.A. and B.A. degree in Iran, Ph.D. in Psychology in India and Postdoc in Malaysia. He has his expertise in addiction treatment and psychotherapy with alcohol and drug addiction. He finished an acupuncture training course in The Faculty of Homeopathy Medicine, Department of Chinese Acupuncture under supervision of Professor. Dr. Nick Omar at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and started to use Psychological acupuncture on addiction and psychotherapy with addicts in University of Malaya Center of Addiction Sciences (UMCAS) and Dr. Nick Omar clinic in Kuala Lumpur. This approach is responsive to psychological disorders and addiction treatment and has a different way of focusing on psychotherapy.
Statement of the Problem: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Psychological acupuncture and Cognitive behavioral therapy on depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders associated with addiction among patients in Malaysia and Iran. This article examines the efficacy of Psychological acupuncture and related techniques for the treatment of drug dependence in experimental settings and clinical practice will be reviewed, and the possible psychological mechanisms underlying this effect will be discussed.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: This study conducted in Malaysia and Iran. Twenty and seven patients included to this study (n=27). Malaysian patients were assigned to study in Dr. Nick Omar Acupuncture clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=13). Iranian patients were assigned to study in Malak Abad Psychological Services office in Mashhad, Iran (n=14). They were grouping in one controlled group and two experimental groups. The controlled group received only medication treatment. Psychological acupuncture and cognitive behavioral therapy were conducted on two experimental groups for three sessions weekly which lasted for two months (eight weeks). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques (Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests)
Findings: Psychological Acupuncture along with Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) relieves withdrawal symptoms, prevents the craving for drugs and increases the rate of participation of patients in long-term treatment programs. The best results have been obtained by treating patients in an open-group setting, using acupuncture points in the external ear with needles without electrical stimulation. The same points are used at each visit, regardless of the type of drug to which the person is addicted. This method is also used for the treatment of persons suffering from stress, depression, anxiety, insomnia and sleep disorders.
Psychological acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) reduced alcohol craving compared with all controls (SMD = -1.24, 95% CI = -1.96 to -0.51); and acupuncture reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms compared with all controls (SMD = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.83 to -0.17). In secondary analyses: acupuncture reduced craving compared with sham acupuncture (SMD = -1.00, 95% CI = -1.79 to -0.21); acupuncture reduced craving compared with controls in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Western countries (SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.12 to -0.18); and acupuncture reduced craving compared with controls in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with only male participants (SMD = -1.68, 95% CI = -2.62 to -0.75).
Conclusion & Significance: This study showed that acupuncture was potentially effective in reducing alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and could be considered as an additional treatment choice and/or referral option within national healthcare systems. Acupuncture therapy could effectively and safely improve the sleep quality of outpatients receiving MMT. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study.
Institute of psychiatry WHO collaboration center, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
I come from a society where mental illnesses are still shrouded in taboos. Patients are stigmatized and neglected. During my psychiatry clerkship I was disheartened to see patients coming to the psychiatry after years of suffering at the hands of the disease but also these faith healers. This prevailing attitude increased my interest in the field of psychiatry. I found myself drawn to acquire a greater understanding of mental illnesses, in context to the cultural backgrounds of the effected individuals. For seven years I have worked in a tertiary care hospital. During these years I have also realized that I have many attributes that make me better suited to this field. I have a gift for communication and people from all walks of life feel comfortable sharing their feelings with me. I am a patient listener and possess a calm demeanor. It is my inherent yearning for this specialty that I consider to be my greatest asset.
Statement of the Problem: The emphasis on Major depressive disorder has left a gap in the research, concerning the relationship between magnitude of depression severity and neurocognitive functions. The current study addresses this issue and looks at the frequency of neurocognitive deficits in depressed elderly patients. Orientation: It is a Cross sectional descriptive study done at Institute of psychiatry availing inpatient and outpatient facility at Benazir Bhutto hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan. Duration of Study was six months from29th September 2014 to 29th March 2015. 292 patients aged ≥60 years were screened for depression using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Neurocognitive impairment was assessed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Severity of depression was assessed by Beck Depressive inventory (BDI). Data was analyzed with statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18). Results showed that severity of depression is associated with the neurocognitive deficits in elderly. Findings: In a sample of (n=292) 32.19% had mild depression, out of these 48.9% had mild cognitive impairment, 20.1% had moderate and 2.1% had severe impairment. 36.9% had moderate depression out of which 34.2% had mild cognitive impairment, 41.6% had moderate and 7% had severe cognitive impairment. 16.4%had severe depression out of which 14.5%had mild neurocognitive impairment, 52%had moderate and 37.5%had severe neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions and significance: Higher BDI score was associated with a lower baseline MMSE. Depression causes significant neurocognitive impairment in elderly. This has to be differentiated from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seen in Dementia. Caution must be taken while prescribing the class of anti-depressants as tricyclic antidepressants can further cause neurocognitive impairment.
Tripti has been a life science researcher with interests in varied fields, including Instrumentation, Bioinformatics and Molecular biology. With her exposure varying from Plant molecular biology to Genetics, she has been specializing in Human Genetics from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), India. With special focus on Alcohol/Opioid addictions, she has been exploring this complex disorder in strengthening the associations among genes. Addiction being a complex disorder has its roots originating both from environment as well as genes. While the environment may vary from child abuse to peer pressure in adolescence, its development and thereafter progression is likely to develop due to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes. Tripti will be sharing her experience and glimpse in providing better insights on the genetics of Alcohol dependence.
Statement of the Problem: Alcohol Dependence (AD) is a chronic relapsing disorder with detrimental health outcomes. Substantial evidence suggests both genetic and environmental factors to be involved in its etiology. While environmental factors are known to play significant roles in developing addiction, genetics makes some individuals more susceptible. This study reports on the screening to identify polymorphisms in genes of the dopamine and GABA pathways in AD patients. Methodology & Orientation: The study group comprised 100 each of male AD patients, recruited from the National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, AIIMS and individuals who did not consume alcohol (controls). The AD subjects (diagnosis on DSM IVR) and controls were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire and WHO ASSIST and 5 ml peripheral blood drawn for genetic analysis after informed consent. Genomic DNA isolated was screened for DRD1 rs686, DRD2 rs6275, ANKK1 rs877138 of the Dopamine pathway and GABRA6 rs13172914 and GABRG2 rs211014 of the GABA pathway by PCR-RFLP. Association with clinical parameters such as age, age at first use, alcohol intake (g/day), ASSIST score, and LFT (SGOT, SGPT) was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Findings: Genotype frequencies in the DRD1 rs686 revealed the genotype TT to be significantly higher in patients (78.9%) in comparison to the controls (59.4%) (p=0.004). The other two polymorphisms DRD2 rs6275 (cases 16.3%; controls 18.9%; p=0.63) and ANKK1 rs877138 (cases 20%; controls 18%; p=0.40) did not show association with AD. GABA pathway polymorphisms GABRA6 rs13172914 (cases 17%; controls 16%; p=0.39) and GABRG2 rs211014 showed similar frequency (8%) in both groups (p=0.91). Correlation with clinical parameters showed the WHO ASSIST score to be significantly associated with DRD2 rs6275 (p=0.007) and GABRA6 rs13172914 (p=0.05). Conclusion & Significance: The present findings are suggestive of the role of TT genotype of DRD1 rs686 in conferring susceptibility to alcohol dependence in the Indian male patients.
Islamic Science University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Farhana is a registered counselor with the Malaysia Board of Counselor. She earned her doctoral degree in Counselor Education and Supervision at Kent State University, Ohio, United State of America. Addiction counseling has always been a field that close to her heart. In addition to her experience working with indviduals with substance abuse issues in the States and in Malaysia, her passion is to advocate for the clients to receive appropriate care and treatment in any possible way. Her interest toward social construction and constructivism started when she was in doctoral program; investigating the outcomes of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy towards dual-diagnosis clients. She believes that drug addiction can be benefited from social-construction thinking, where the are other alternatives “story” in the life of drug addicts.
Statement of the problem: Traditional addiciton counseling became accustomed with the assessment of clients’ past life, where they may have failed, and the focus of counseling interventions tend to be surrounded on investigating “why” the clients have continued to ‘relapse’ back to a drug-involved lifestyle. The repeated conversation on causes of problems and failures about the clients can often be self-fulfilling. When a counselor reviews a client’s history, a mind-set develops about the client. If the mind-set is about client being resistant, reluctant, and defensive, the client action will be regarded in that fashion regardless of their behavior. This mind-set can be a form of sabotaging the client treatment even before it has begun. Post-modernism counseling moves away from this paradigm. With that being said, a post-modernist counselor posits that drug addicts’ being reluctant and defensive are something constructed in the session using language between the counselor and the client. That means, solution is also can be constructed in the session. Viewing clients from solution-oriented could benefit clients with addictive disorder. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of post-modern ideas in addiction counseling in treating clients with addictive disorder at a residential setting in Malaysia. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: A case study is presented to illustrate the use of post-modern ideas in addressing hope and solutions in a drug addict client. The guidelines of post-modernism counseling is adhered to Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT). Findings: this study indicated a significant reduction in dysfunctioning behavior and improvement in psychological well-being. Conclusion and Significance. The positive outcomes from this study calls for support to further investigate the use of post-modern ideas in addiciton counseling. The underlying theoretical rationale of SFBT, such as being a brief therapy and a focus on strength, can be part of an effective and cost-efficient strategy to treat clients with addicitve disorder.
The National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Title: The Readiness Of Quit Smoking Status Of Smokers Registered In Quit Smoking Services In The Hospital Around Klang Valley, Malaysia
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Mohd Haazik developed interest in Tobacco Control and Management for working with Ministry of Health about three years ago. His first task were doing an anti-smoking campaign in the national level. From there, he continued to do campaigns and promotions for anti-smoking by doing several exhibitions and giving talk to students, public and smokers. He also administrated Ministry of Health’s Quitline for Smoking where smokers can call the infoline to get information or help in quitting smoking. He also were one of the influencer in 2015 – 2020 National Strategic Plan for Tobacco Control. Due to this, he continued his second Msc by doing thesis The Readiness of Quit Smoking Status and Psychosocial Profile of Smokers Registered in Quit Smoking Services in the Hospitals around Klang Valley Malaysia
Statement of the Problem: A total of (70%) which is equivalent to three million smokers in Malaysia has an intention of quit smoking. However, there are only less than one percent of smokers enrolled in the Quit Smoking Service in the hospital each year. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the status of the characteristics of the socio-demographic, the relationship between psychosocial factors with constructs of readiness to quit and to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors with readiness to quit smoking. Findings: The majority of respondents involved in this study were men (95.7%) and mostly aged between 30 and 50 years (56%). A total of (27%) of respondents had a high willingness to quit smoking. The study found that there was a significant negative relationship between family social support with Pre-Contemplation constructs (p= 0.050, r= -0179). There was also a significant negative relationship between nicotine addiction with Contemplation constructs (p= 0.050, r= -0.180). Apart from that, the study also showed that there is a significant negative relationship between social support colleagues with Action constructs (p= 0.050, r= -0.183). The study also shows that there is a significant positive relationship between anxiety with the Maintainence constructs (p= 0.004, r= 0.265), there is also a significant negative relationship between social support and social support partners with Maintainence construct with each recorded value (p= 0.027, r= -0.206) and (p= 0.001, r= -0.305). Finally the conducted study also shows that there is a significant negative relationship between social support colleagues with willingness to quit smoking (p= 0.016, r= -0.224). Conclusion & Significance: In conclusion, in addition to provide basic information on psychosocial profile, the study also gives a clear picture of the influence of psychosocial factors on the level of behaviour change and readiness to quit smoking. Thus, the responsible party must ensure that each operator of quit smoking services has high helping skills in controlling the smokers, especially on the assessment aspects of smoker’s readiness to quit smoking and psychosocial profile.
Adinda currently worked at KAPETA Foundation as one of the board member. She holds an ICAP II (International Certified Addiction Professionals level II) and Recovery Coach credential from ICCE Colombo Plan, now also set her interest and goal in Prevention. Adinda is pursuing her degree in Public Relation during the weekend and are involved part time as an in-depth interviewer for HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN 074) at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. She is one of Indonesia’s national trainer for Universal Treatment Curriculum and are one of the developer of Family Empowerment for Substance Abuse Prevention module for Indonesia’s Ministry of Health. Her passion for Substance Abuse come from personal experience and is determine to continue broadening her knowledge and skills in Substance use treatment and prevention to help others in need.
Statement of the Problem: Indonesia now has 5.9 million drug users yet society still has low knowledge in substance abuse and how to prevent it. Survey on knowledge of the dangers of drugs is still relatively low with a range 4-53%, for the things that can prevent a person from drug use range between 17-58% in common household. Most that still uses or wanted to try has a misperception about the effect like increase of stamina, even now the New Psychoactive Substance are sold online. Interest in this matter haven’t emerge as expected and the media often misrepresents reports of drug use which leads to misperception. Mass communication holds substantial promise as a tool for reaching and persuading people to adopt new and healthier lifestyles and social media use growth in Indonesia has reach 27 million by 2016. Orientation: Systematic review including 12 studies in total, 10 internet and computer based prevention programs concerning tobacco, alcohol and cannabis in a school setting. Findings: In total, the level of substance use in the intervention group was found to be lower than in the control group for six of the seven analyzed programs at the end of the intervention or at the time of follow up. Shown reduction in tobacco use, reduction in alcohol use in four studies, lower binge drinking in two studies. In one studies shows significantly lower frequency of consumption. All programs shown effectiveness between four and 12 sessions and five of six effective programs were based on the social influence model and social cognitive theory. Conclusion & Significance: The research shown significant change through frequent information and educational exposure. As it is also becoming a trend to use social media, those exposures will be more effective among school children and youth to reach behavior or social change.
Substance misuse and process addiction disorders are of growing global relevance. Behaviour al health facilities are treating an increasing number of primary addictions patients with co-morbid psychiatric presentations.
Understanding and developing treatment models, which empower the patient to simultaneously address the co-occurring and often complex diagnosis, is a challenge for practitioners specialising in addictive disorders. We look at the benefits of treating addiction, adverse childhood experiences and stabilising any underlying conditions in the current treatment episode.
KAYA Rehab Asia, Philippians
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Author and Ayurvedic practitioner, USA
Michelle S. Fondin is the author of Help! I Think My Loved One Is an Alcoholic: A Survival Guide for Lovers, Family, & Friends (2016), The Wheel of Healing with Ayurveda: An Easy Guide to a Healthy Lifestyle (New World Library, 2015), and upcoming books 7 Days to Chakra Healing and Enlightened Medicine. Michelle is a writer for Deepak Chopra’s website, Chopra Lifestyle and is an Ayurvedic Practitioner, meditation, and yoga teacher.
Statement of the problem: Long-term sobriety from alcohol addiction is a difficult goal to obtain. According to the National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, only 14.6 percent of people with alcohol abuse and dependence ever receive treatment. Of those 14.6 percent only a small percentage make it beyond the 90-day mark of total abstinence. If long-term sobriety is evasive to most, what makes some people successful? Researchers have studied people in recovery for 150 years and lack conclusive evidence on what makes a person get and stay sober. While statistics show that a majority of attendees in 12-step programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), have a dropout rate of 95% in the first year of sobriety, success is achieved for the other 5%. Alcoholics Anonymous, a spiritually-based program, with over two million members, has several draws for a longitudinal study on long- term sobriety; the longevity of the program itself, the global access to everyone regardless of income level, and members in long-term sobriety.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: I attended over one hundred hours of AA meetings and interviewed those who had between two and 36 years of sobriety. I interviewed a control group of ten recovering alcoholics with at least two years of continual sobriety. The criteria for the intensive interviews were three-fold. The alcoholics in the control group had to have alcohol as their primary drug of choice. They had to be attending at least one 12-step meeting per week and they had to have had continual, uninterrupted sobriety for at least two years. In addition, those selected needed to be alcoholics (alcohol dependent) and not simply heavy drinkers. And they had to be in active recovery rather than being “dry drunks”.
Findings: The info graphic above shows the findings of alcoholics in continual long-term sobriety for more than two years. The formula for long-term recovery, according to the control group, is largely dependent on several actions leading to a spiritual path and way of living. While each of these factors contributed to sustained sobriety not everyone participated in every single category, all the time, with the exception of one category. One hundred percent of the control group stated that their long-term sobriety was a direct result of their relationship with a Higher Power.
Conclusions & Significance: Not a single person in the control group was pre-selected based on any question regarding religious or spiritual beliefs. The criteria for selection was uniquely based on abstinence, attendance in a 12-step group, and alcohol as the primary drug of choice. The interviews were geared toward determining the factors for sustained sobriety. Living a spiritual life including belief in a Higher Power, prayer, meditation, and service to others as well as connection to a spiritually-based group appear to be a significant formula for long-term sobriety.